1. Shahada — Profession of Faith
The belief and profession that “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God”. One becomes a Muslim by reciting this phrase with conviction.
2. Salat — Prayer
Pray facing Mecca five times a day: at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and after dark. Prayer includes a recitation of the opening chapter (sura) of the Qur’an. Men gather in the mosque for the noonday prayer on Friday.
3. Zakat — Alms
The faithful must donate a fixed portion of their income to benefit of the community, or to the church. This must be done both as a religious duty and to secure the blessings associated with charity.
4. Sawm — Fasting
During the daylight hours of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, all healthy adult Muslims must abstain from food and drink. Through this temporary deprivation they renew awareness of and gratitude for God’s bounty. The Qur’an was first revealed during this month.
5. Hajj — Pilgrimage
Health and finances permitting, the faithful must visit the holy city of Mecca at least once. The Ka’ba, a cubical structure covered in black embroidered hangings, is at the center of the Haram Mosque in Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia. The Ka’ba is the house which Ibrahim built for God, and the faithful face in its direction (Qibla) when they pray. Since the time of the Prophet Muhammad, the faithful have gathered around the Ka’ba on the eighth and twelfth days of the final month of the Islamic calendar.